China is a big country in the production, consumption and trade of agricultural products. The upgrading of agricultural production and management mode, the connection between agricultural production and modern circulation and urban market are more and more close. In the transportation process of fresh products such as dairy products, poultry and aquatic products, cold chain logistics plays an increasingly prominent role. In addition, in addition to agricultural products, medicine, catering chains and FMCG are also the main transportation commodities in cold chain logistics.
Cold chain logistics generally refers to a systematic project in which products are always in a specified temperature range in production, storage, transportation, sales and consumption, so as to ensure product quality and reduce process loss. It is established with the progress of science and technology and the development of refrigeration technology. It is a low-temperature logistics process based on refrigeration technology and means of refrigeration technology.
Market scale of cold chain logistics
In recent years, with the steady growth of China's residents' income level, the consumption level has also increased. With the popularity of the Internet, people's lifestyle has changed, and the way of purchasing agricultural products, food, medicine and other consumer goods has become more and more convenient. Online shopping, fresh e-commerce, vegetable and fruit home matching are all popular choices in the current consumer market. For online shopping, fresh e-commerce, vegetable and fruit home matching, transportation is very important. Benefiting from the growth of such consumption, the domestic cold chain logistics market is also developing rapidly.
According to the data, the fundamentals of cold chain logistics continued to improve in 2018. It is predicted that the total demand for cold chain logistics in China will reach 180 million tons in 2018, an increase of 33 million tons over the previous year, a year-on-year increase of 22.1%. Data shows that in 2018, the scale of cold chain logistics market reached 303.5 billion yuan, an increase of 48.5 billion yuan over the previous year, a year-on-year increase of 19%.
The cold chain logistics market has a broad prospect, the demand continues to open, and the market scale will maintain the growth trend in the future. It is estimated that the cold chain logistics market will reach 380 billion yuan in 2019. By 2020, the market size will be nearly 470 billion yuan.
China's cold chain logistics market is in the stage of rapid development, and the scale of cold chain logistics storage keeps growing. According to the statistics, in 2017, the scale of China's cold chain logistics and warehousing market was nearly 48 million tons. With the rapid growth of cold chain logistics market, it is estimated that the scale of cold chain logistics storage market will exceed 52 million tons in 2018. By 2019, the scale of cold chain logistics storage market will exceed 580 billion yuan.
Cold storage scale
Although the cold chain logistics market in China is in a rapid development stage, the infrastructure construction level of cold chain logistics still needs to be improved. In 2018, the level of China's cold chain infrastructure equipment will be further improved. According to the data, in 2018, the total amount of cold storage in China will reach 52.38 million tons (equivalent to 130 million cubic meters), and the new storage capacity will be 4.88 million tons, up 10.3% year on year.
The number of refrigerators has increased, but there is still a large space compared with the huge market. It is estimated that by 2019, China's cold storage capacity will exceed 60 million tons.
From the perspective of the newly added cold storage areas, Fuzhou, Jinan, Chongqing, Wuhan, Hangzhou, Dalian and other cities have seen significant growth, reflecting the rapid rise of consumption in the second and third tier cities. In addition, as of the third quarter of 2018, the number of refrigerated vehicles in China was 164200, with 24000 new refrigerated vehicles, a year-on-year increase of 33%, a significant increase.
In 2018, China's cold chain industry will face the following problems:
1、 The business environment of cold chain logistics needs to be optimized. Many cold chain storage enterprises reflect that the lack of space for land resources has become the fundamental difficulty for the development and growth of enterprises. At the same time, due to the high amount of real estate tax, land-use tax and additional tax, and the less deductible items, enterprises bear a greater tax burden. In addition, cold chain enterprises encounter multiple factors such as financing difficulties in business model innovation.
2、 The infrastructure structure of cold chain in some areas is unbalanced. On the one hand, some agricultural production areas still have the problems of insufficient supporting facilities at the first kilometer of the cold chain, less precooling facilities and refrigerators in the production areas, and standard deviation. On the other hand, some provinces and cities have blind and excessive construction of refrigerators, and their functional positioning lags behind the market demand, which leads to the phenomenon that the supply of refrigerators exceeds the demand or the supply and demand cannot match. As of the end of October, there are more than 2 million tons of refrigerators nationwide facing the problem of rent.
3、 The profit space of enterprises is further compressed. According to the survey and statistics of cold chain Committee of China Federation of materials, the average net profit margin of cold chain logistics industry is only about 3% - 4% at present, and it is still being compressed. Some of the cold chain logistics enterprises lose money and make a profit, while some enterprises are willing to give up their existing businesses to survive. Under the objective factors of increasing cost year by year, how to find a new profit growth point is a problem for all practitioners to think about.
4、 Lack of integrity and supervision are prominent problems. The rapid development of cold chain industry can not cover up the fact that the cost of default is low due to the lack of integrity and supervision, which will cause a series of problems such as price war, unilateral breach of contract, high accounts receivable, high cost of supervision and financing difficulties.
5、 Cold chain logistics talent shortage is serious. First of all, the cold chain industry lacks talents in strategy formulation and operation management. According to the report, there are less than 2000 senior management talents with both theoretical basis and practical ability in the current industry. Secondly, there is a lack of talents who master cold chain professional skills. With the change of social age structure and the increase of human cost year by year, the new trend of intelligent cost cold chain industry, in this case, the industry urgently needs a group of new professionals who know "cold, chain, material and flow".